First vaccine developed against cancer

First vaccine developed against cancer

It is now possible to prevent cervical cancer with the vaccine!

HPV virus, the second most common type of cancer seen in women, cervical cancer, especially in developing countries is one of the most important women's health problems. Every year 300 thousand women are lost due to this disease. With the approval of the Ministry of Health curious points about the HPV vaccine which began to be implemented in Turkey ASM experts are telling ...

The most important cause of cervical cancer Human Papilloma Virus HPV HP cervical cancer in response to HPV infection develops uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells in the uterine wall. These abnormal cervical cells come together to form masses called tumors.
After the diagnosis of HPV infection, various treatment methods are applied until it reaches the stage of cancer. However, we know that preservation always leads to more successful results than treatment. One of the very few cancer types that can be protected by vaccination is cervical cancer. The cervical cancer vaccines, which were approved by the Ministry of Health and started to be sold in our country this year, are trying to solve a very important health problem for women.
HPV is transmitted through contact and sexual intercourse. Anadolu Health Center Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Assoc. Dr. Fatih Güçer, HPV is a very common virus, and in a US study in 2007, a quarter of women in the age of sexually active HPV virus was revealed, he says. Around 630 million people worldwide are thought to be infected, Assoc. Dr. Güçer stated that HPV is close to 100 types, but only 30 of them cause infection in male and female genital organs. So not everyone with the HPV virus has cancer. When HPV virus is encountered, 80 percent of people do not receive the virus and nothing happens. 20 percent have the HPV virus. Chronic persistent infection does not occur in 75 percent of these 20 percent. In other words, the body's immune system defeats this virus, allowing the virus to disappear from the body. But 25 percent have a chronic persistent infection. ”
HPV virus incubation period of approximately 9 months, Assoc. Dr. Gucer, the effects of infection to occur after receiving the virus should take about 1 year, he says.
Assoc. Dr. Dr. Güçer, chronic persistent infection occurs when the virus first concealed in the cervix, the cervical epithelium tissue under the bottom layer is placed under the bottom layer, says: . Here too, the virus either enters the nucleus of the cell, and the DNA of the virus integrates with the nucleus of the cell or settles in the cytoplasm of the cell. We call it episomal settlement. The settlement is important. Because in general, when it is placed in the nucleus, it causes infections that are closer to the course of cancer. When it settles in the cytoplasm, it causes infections that are benign. However, it may rarely cause cancer without settling in the nucleus. ”
The virus causes a chronic infection and epithelial layers, distorting from bottom to top, causing a number of changes in the cells there says Assoc. Dr. Güçer, whether these changes are benign or malignant papsmear test can be understood, he adds.

Not Every Wart Cancer Alert
HPV 16, HPV 18, 31, 33, 45 constitute the high-risk group, while HPV 6, 11 low-risk group. Assoc. Dr. Er HPV 6 and 11 cause more condylomas. We hardly ever see HPV 6 and 11. For this reason, people with warts 'I am going to be cancer,' he does not need to panic. But people who have warts have the risk of taking other high-risk types of HPV with them, so they need to have a regular smear test. ”
Assoc. Dr. Gucer lists the infections caused by HPV as follows: “HPV causes some infections that may cause warts or cervical cancer. In addition, HPV virus is positive in 90 percent of anagenital cancers. In addition, we see the positivity of HPV virus very frequently in lesions that we call vulva cancer in the outer part of the vagina. HPV is a type of vulva cancer that occurs in young people and is associated with cigarette smoking, especially in a multifocal type that starts at several locations at the same time. ”

Assoc. Dr. Güçer emphasized that polygamy is the most important risk factor for HPV, “Having multiple partners is a risk factor. At the same time smoking, the use of birth control pills, vitamin A deficiency, herpes virus infection, immune system resistance in cases such as HPV infection increases the probability of passing to the person. The HPV virus also causes a number of lesions in the larynx, which we call papillon. ” ASD Oncology specialists Prof.Dr. Haluk Onat emphasizes the necessity of vaccination to protect girls from illness. "Your daughter may not be polygamous when she grows up, but what about her husband?"

No direct treatment of HPV
Asserting that there is no antibiotic used in the treatment of HPV 'Assoc. Dr. Güçer describes the treatment as follows:
Ars If there is a virus located in the cervix and it causes some lesions, we determine these lesions by smear test. If necessary, we recognize these lesions by biopsy with colposcopy and apply treatment according to the type of these lesions. Here, there are 3 types of lesions called CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 and there is a stage that we call in situ carcinoma. Considering the event as a ladder step, the first step is CIN 1, the second step is CIN 2, the third step is CIN 3, the fourth step is carcinoma in situ and the last step is cancer stage. The result reported in the smear test may be low-grade dysplasia or high-grade dysplasia or direct cancer. If the smear test shows low, moderate or high grade dysplasia, then we perform colposcopy. By enlarging the cervix even further, we use a number of special solutions to evaluate some color changes and take a biopsy in particular suspicious areas. After taking the biopsy, a histopathological diagnosis should be made and the diagnosis should be evaluated together with the patient. For example, if your patient is compliant, if the pathology result is CIN 1 and we do not have any clinical suspicion of an advanced lesion, we will call the patient every 6 months without having to do much additional work if he / she will talk to the patient and come to check in harmony. ”
If the result of a high-risk dysplasia, such as CIN 3 histopathology, the lesion must be removed if Assoc. Dr. Er If CIN 1 is developed, the body can beat it 70-80 percent by itself and the lesion disappears. However, self-disappearance rate in CIN 3 is 10 percent and below. Then we would like to meet with the patient, for example, if she is a 49-year-old woman, to take her uterus. However, if a 25-year-old woman, we remove the diseased area by conization or lip excision according to the size and diameter of the lesion. This is a 5-minute process. If there are no CIN 3 lesions in the so-called surgical margins, this person has a 3 percent or less chance of recurrence during the lifetime. Expectations, age, degree of lesion and adherence to treatment are very important in the chosen treatment method. ”
It is possible to destroy condylomas (warts) by laser, cryotherapy or electro cautery, or to treat them with a number of immunological agents developed in recent years. But not every lesion can do this. For example, if there is an advanced condyloma in the vagina, it is preferable to burn or freeze it instead of eliminating it with cream.

Late diagnosis of cervical cancer
Turkey Assoc regular smeartes said was the largest birçoğunlug of patients who develop cervical cancer are not built to stay longer at the stage where they go to doctors the chance of surgery. Dr. For this reason, Güçer underlined the importance of protection and said, orum I think this vaccine should be given to everyone who thinks it is at risk. In fact, if the whole community will be vaccinated after 20-30 years there will be no cervical cancer in Turkey. However, I also need to specify that. The HPV vaccine currently available on the market is protective against 16 and 18, not protective against other types. Among the HPV viruses that cause cancer, 16 and 18 make up 70 percent of all cancers. This means that 30 percent of cancers are caused by HPV types that are not protected by the vaccine. So being vaccinated is not a guarantee of not getting cancer. When the vaccine is administered, the smear scan should continue in the same way. ” Prof. dr. Haluk Onat also stated that cervical cancer is usually noticed in the late period and said, “Cervical cancers are mostly seen in developing countries. also it is found frequently in Turkey. Women seek medical attention if they have pain or bleeding. However, when they have no complaints, they need to be examined regularly ”. Prof. dr. Ont emphasizes that although such cancers allow treatment when diagnosed early, it makes treatment difficult in the slightest delay.
The HPV vaccine has been one of the most popular issues in recent months. The day it was released HPV vaccine whether it is necessary for Turkey, since the price, which must be made on issues such as the age range in which many people are making idea. Therefore, society is confused. Anadolu Medical Center Infectious Diseases Specialist Dr. We asked Elif Hakko.
The American Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended that young women aged 9-26 be vaccinated without having sexual intercourse. Hakko said, “Actually, it is recommended for girls between the ages of 9 and 13, but there is also an indication for the ages of 9-26. Not recommended too much over the age of 26. It is important that the vaccine is administered before the cervical epithelium is fully formed. Cervical epithelium also occurs in the 9-13 age range. This process may take up to 26 years. Therefore, I leave the choice to the patient. If the patient feels at risk, the younger he is, the more useful it is to have it done. Especially if you do not have any sexual experience should be done. But sexual intercourse is not the criterion here. Even if they have had sexual intercourse, this vaccine will protect them if they have not encountered oncogenic types from thousands of HPV viruses. ”
Since HPV vaccine is not a live vaccine and is prepared with genetic technology such as hepatitis vaccines, it can be easily given to many people because of the lack of live virus vaccine. Hakko said, “The vaccine has no known side effects. As with other vaccines, local heat build-up may cause redness. Three doses. The second dose is given 2 months after the first dose and the third dose is given 6 months after the first dose. We don't know about long-term protection because it's so new. It's been 5 years. We know you've protected it for up to five years. Since we do not know what will happen after 5 years, a dose may be given again after 5 years. 99 percent protection in warts, 100 percent in other cancers rise. It's an arm. A vaccine that anyone interested can give. Since the age group we recommend is for girls aged 9-13, pediatricians should do so. But in later years, gynecologists and infectious diseases specialists may be involved. Konuşuy

Prof. dr. Haluk Onat says that vaccines are also protected against cancers of the larynx and larynx. “The vaccine is also protective against oral and laryngeal cancers caused by oral sex HPV. Because the same mechanism works in that region. There is also no point in being vaccinated after becoming ill. ”

As other childhood vaccines are given priority because the 9-13 age range, the responsibility for the HPV vaccine falls to the parents said. Elif Hakko, “Just like the other vaccines, this is an important disease. The most important part is that you prevent a disease like cancer, which is really difficult and difficult to treat. It is a cost-effective vaccine but it does not cost much for everyone who has the opportunity to spare for their children. Besides, we don't know what kind of sexual life the next generation will have. If you live monogamous, your spouse is monogamous, provided that the issue. You may never encounter a virus in your life. But a society that will not be monogamous, perhaps with other problems in the future, may be waiting for us. Mothers and fathers should be made especially for the protection of their daughters. It is also recommended for boys, but it must be made for girls first. ”
Like other sexually transmitted diseases, HPV cannot be protected from using condoms. Hakko “Unfortunately, 50% protection can be provided with condoms from HPV. Because it is not necessarily a fluid exchange for transmission, it can be transmitted even by skin contact. ”
relationships outside of marriage, and also one of the issues discussed in Turkey due to lack of Western countries where polygamy is often far less likely to encounter the virus and the vaccine should be constructed so as not. Dr. Elif Hakko, HPV virus is seen more frequently in developing countries, saying, “If you are monogamous, you are already protected from all diseases, but we do not occur, not much in mind is a polygamy. When you look at world rates, there is a big difference in the rate of disease between developing countries and developed countries against developing countries. In developing countries, the doctor is late. In developed countries, health services and tests are free, more training is being done. Turkey is at risk in this sense, "he says.

Who can be vaccinated?
Emphasizing that the vaccine does not have a therapeutic effect Infectious Diseases Specialist Dr. Elif Hakko gives the following information about who can be vaccinated: “Especially girls aged 9-13. This age range can optionally be extended to 26 years. Immune impaired persons; people with AIDS, who are receiving cancer treatment for another reason.You can be vaccinated only after their immunity is strengthened. Not recommended during pregnancy, but breastfeeding women can be vaccinated. If it is started before pregnancy, it cannot be continued and re-vaccination can be performed after the end of pregnancy. It is recommended that those who use immunosuppressive drugs should be vaccinated after the administration of these drugs. Vaccination of men is still under discussion. Because they also develop genital warts that do not cause cancer, and the need to be vaccinated to prevent them is being discussed. It is reported that men can be vaccinated at the age of 9-15 if they prefer not to be carriers. ”

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